Things that cause children can experience the Abbasids (The Golden Age)

Things that cause children can experience the Abbasids (The Golden Age), progress in science, philosophy and other disciplines as follows:
• Contacts between Islam and Persia became the bridge for the development of science and philosophy in the Persian cultural role in the development of Greek science, especially the academy Jundisapur, and other scientific centers such as Salonika, Ctesiphon, Nishapur
• scientific ethos Abbasid caliphs, particularly emotion Ar Rashid and Al-Ma’mun who was passionate about science
• The role of family Barmak as environmental educators in the palace. Barmak family hereditary intellectual adviser to the caliph
• Activity translating Greek literature into Arabic is such a large and supported by the Caliph policy with a great reward for every translator. This is the cause of Hellenization in Islamic thought

• The existence of heterogeneous civilizations and cultures in Baghdad raises the process of interaction between one culture with another culture
• Situation cosmopolitan Baghdad where many tribes, races and ethnic and each culture interact with one another

Centers of scientific activity at the time of Abbasiyaah:
• Hejaz: Mecca and medina, the center of Hadith and Islamic Jurisprudence
• Iraq: central activities of all the sciences, such as Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh, Language, History, Science Kalam, Philosophy, Natural Science, Music Science
• Egypt: Fusthat (Cairo) and Alexandria a city that is developing science. Alexandria

• Isfahan: the Palace of Bani Buwaihi
• Bukhara: Palace Dynasty Samany
• Andalusia: Cordoba is famous with his knowledge Ma’had, Cordoba maktabah contain millions of volumes of books and other scientific assembly. Cordoba In addition, several other cities is Granada, Valencia, Murcia

The Comparative between Abbasid and Umayyad

No Subject Umayyah Abbasiyyah
1. Form of Government Monarchi/Kingdom Monarchi/Kingdom
2. Center of Government Damaskus Baghdad
3. Character Absolutism Absolutism
4. Social Character Arabis Cosmopolis
5. Government Executing Khalifah Wazir
6. Power of Caliphate Spiritual temporal Spiritual temporal (the first 100 years), Spiritual course (post-100 years)
7. Aspect of progress Political-Military Political-Military -economy-Intellectual
8. Military forces Arab Arab-Persian-Turkish
9 Degree of Caliphate Nothing There
10. Crown Prince There There
11. Power 89 tahun 500 tahun
12. The exspansion Still going on Stop
13. Opposition Khawarij, Syi’ah, Al Abbas, Abu Muslim Khawarij, Syi’ah, Rawandiyah
14. The Party to distrub Tidak ada Buwaih, Seljuk
15. End of Power Abbasiyyah’s Revolution Attack of Hulagu Khan

 

v  The Founder of Abbasiyah: Abdullah as Saffah bin Muhammad bin Ali Abdullah bin Al Abbas

v  The causes of weakness :

  1. Munculnya rasa fanatisme kebangsaan berupa syu’ubiyyah (kebangsaan/anti Arab). Terutama muncul dari bangsa Turki
  2. Banyaknya dinasti-dinasti baru yang lahir dan melepaskan diri dari Bani Abbas
  3. Luasnya Daulah Abbas sementara komunikasi pusat dengan daerah sulit dilakukan dan juga tingkat kepercayaan antar pejabat kurang
  4. Pertentangan dalam tubuh militer, antara golongan Dailam dengan keturunan Turki
  5. Perebutan kekuasaan di kalangan keturunan Bani Buwaiah
  6. Gencarnya serangan Byzantium

 

v  The reason why  The Dynasty of Abbasside more choose Persian than Arabs

  1. Difficult for Arabs to forget Umayyad.
  2. Orang Arab sendiri terpecah belah dengan adanya Ashabiyyah (kesukuan)

v  The reason why The Dynasty of Abbasside have problems in economic aspect

  1. Semakin sempitnya wilayah kekuasaan Abbasiyyah
  2. Banyaknya kerusuhan yang mengganggu perekonomian rakyat
  3. Banyaknya dinasti-dinasti kecil yang memerdekakan diri dan tidak mau membayar upeti
  4. Lifestyle pejabat yang selalu hidup mewah
  5. Banyak pejabat yang corrupt

v   Factors external the reason Abbasside falling down

  1. Crusade
  2. Occupation of Mongol

Intrik politic when Abbasside Era

No

Masa

Intric Politic

1. Al Mansyur 1)      Pemberontakan Abdullah bin Ali disebabkan keinginannya untuk menjadi khalifah

2)      Pemberontakan Syi’ah yang merasa terkecoh dengan propaganda Abbasiyah

2. Al Mahdi Munculnya gerakan Zindiq dan kaum Khawarij yang mendirikan pemerintah Rustamiyah di Aljazair
3. Harun Al Rasyid 1)      Pemberontakan Yahya bin Abdullah

2)      Pemberontakan Zindiq

3)      Terjadinya tragedi Baramikah (terbunuhnya keluarga Barmak_Persia)

Dynamic politic when Abbasside Era

No

Tahun

Uraian

Location

1.

750 – 847 M
  1. Kemunculan Umayyah
  2. Dinasti Idrisiah (789 – 926)
  3. Dinasti Rustamiah (777 – 909)
  4. Dinasti Aghlabid (800 – 909)

Fez

Algeria

Tunisia

2.

847 – 945 M
  1. D. Saffariah (861 – 1003)
  2. D. Tahiri (810 – 873)
  3. D. Samaniah (874 – 1005)
  4. D. Tuluniyah (904)
  5. D. Hamdani (924 – 991)

Persia

Khurasan

Transoxia

Egypt

Aleppo and Mausil

3.

945 – 1055 M
  1. D. Buwaihiyah
  2. D. Ikhsyid (939 – 968)
  3. D. Ghaznawiyyah (977 – 1186)
 

4.

1055 – 1258 M
  1. D. Fatimiah (909 – 1160)
  2. D. Seljuk (
  3. D. Ayubiah (1174 – 1252)
  4. D. Mamluk (1250 – 1517)
  5. D. Murabhitun (1056 – 1147)
  6. D. Muwahiddun (1121 – 1269)
Egypt

 

 

All about “Rightly Guided” Caliph

Aspect

Abu Bakar

Umar ibn Khathab

Ustman ibn Affan

Ali

Proses pengangkatan Inisiatif Umar Wasiat Abu Bakar Formatur Umar Ahl Madinah
Important event Pembersihan nabi-nabi palsu Penaklukan Persia Pembunuh Utsman Banyaknya perang internal
Expansions  Lebih focus pada pemberantasan pemberontakan Damascus, Suriah, Egypt, Iraq Africa, Cyprus,, Armenia, Kabul Nothing
Contribution Mengumpulkan Al Qur’an Penanggalan Islam Penyusunan Mushaf utsmani  
Died Sick Dibunuh by Abu Lu’luah (budak Persia) Dibunuh dalam konspirasi Ghafiqi Dibunuh Abdullah bin Muljam
Personality Bijaksana, saleh Berani, adil Lembut, agamis Berani bersikap, ilmiah

 

 

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