Imam Hanafi

Ø  Born in Kuffah 80 H-150 H

Imam Hanafi An Nu’man bin Tsabit Al Kufiy is the original name of Imam Hanafi. He is Ulama from Iraq. Abu Hanifah have degree as “Al Imam al Azzam”, have meaning is The Biggest Ulama, but in the other literature explain that “Hanif” come from Iraq language and have meaning is “ink”, because Imam Hanifah always bring pen and ink to write the knowledge from the other person. Before Imam Hanifah study fiqih, he more like study qira’at, hadits, nahwu, poem, theology and kalam. In history of Islamic, we know that Imam Hanafi live in Umayyad and Abbasside era. He lives 52 years at Umayyad and 18 years at Abbasside.

Imam Hanafi more identical as The Ahl Ra’yi. He more uses the logic and reason to interpret Hadits and Al Qur’an. He more priority The ra’yi than Khabar ahad. If he meets some hadits opposite with the other hadits, he uses qiyas and istihsan 

Ø  Ambivalent

  • Positive aspect

1.      Imam Syafii berkata, “Barangsiapa ingin mutabahir (memiliki ilmu seluas lautan) dalam masalah fiqih hendaklah dia belajar kepada Abu Hanifah

2.      Fudhail bin Iyadh berkata, “Abu Hanifah adalah seorang yang faqih, terkenal dengan wara’-nya, termasuk salah seorang hartawan, sabar dalam belajar dan mengajarkan ilmu, sedikit bicara, menunjukkan kebenaran dengan cara yang baik, menghindari dari harta penguasa”.

3.      Hafsh bin Ghiyats berkata, “Pendapat Abu Hanifah di dalam masalah fiqih lebih mendalam dari pada syair, dan tidaklah mencelanya melainkan dia itu orang yang jahil tentangnya”.

  • Negative aspect

1.      Sebagian ahlul Ilmi memberikan tuduhan bahwa Abu Hanifah adalah Murji’ah dalam memaknai masalah Iman. Yaitu penyataan bahwa iman itu keyakinan yang ada dalam hati dan diucapkan dengan lisan, dan mengeluarkan amal dari hakikat iman.

2.      Abdul Karim bin Muhammad bin Syu’aib An-Nasai berkata, “Abu Hanifah Nu’man bin Tsabit tidak kuat hafalan haditsnya”.

Ø  The Basic of Islamic Jurisprudence’s Hanafi

  • Qur’an
  • Sunnah
  • Ijtihad

o   Naqliyyah

o   Aqliyyah

Ø  Madzab Hanafi is the legal Islamic Jurisprudence of Utsmaniyyah Dynasty

Ø  Some requirement if we want to accept Hadits Ahad

  • Muhadisin tidak berbuat/berfatwa yang bertentangan dengan hadits yang diriwayatkannya
  • Hadits ahad tidak boleh menyangkut permasalahan umum dan sering terjadi, because kalau menyangkut kemaslahatan umum pasti banyak yang meriwayatkannya
  • Hadits ahad tidak boleh bertentangan dengan kaidah-kaidah umum/dasar-dasar kulliyat

Ø  The reason why Hanafi to be rationalism

  • The situation at Iraq more complex and more metropolis than Hejaz, so the problem in there absolutely more difficult and more complex to solve. Culture live in Hejaz simpler and still traditional, so if the society in there absolutely meets with the simple problem, it’s different with In Kuffah (Iraq). In kuffah, social culture in there meet more difficult problem, so according Imam Hanafi need more interpretation to can arising new law. Also according him, the hadits in Hejaz can’t give solution with the problem in there, because the law in Hejaz only correct with the simple problem.
  • Imam Hanifah not only studies in Islamic Jurisprudence, but also in philosophy. The effect from its Imam Hanafi can practice Fiqh with interpretation (tafsir) and istihsan.
  • He lives in Kuffah, the city too far from Medina and Mecca (The center of Islamic). So hadits in there is not original again and hadits in there was contaminated with pseudo hadits. Imam hanafi more believe with him argument than the other hadits where the status in this hadits still unclearly. Him reason about this case is the status between him and the other of tabi’in is equal, so Imam Hanafi more like using the mind to analyze the hadits, the effect from it Imam Hanafi identically believe with The Credo of Rationalism
  • In Kuffah very difficult meet the true hadits and in there just a few hadits we can meet it. So Imam Hanafi need more hadits to solve the problem in there, the way to can do it’s only with interpretation from basic hadits

Ø  Died of Imam Hanafi

Imam Hanafi died when Abbasside era, when Abu Ja’far Al Mansyur be The Caliphate. Imam Hanafi died in Prison, because he wants to avoid the order from The Caliphate to be The Judgement (Qadhi). According him, the Islamic Thinker (Ulama) must stay away from everything to have correlate with luxurious. Because if The Ulama live in condition it, Ulama can’t give solution on the problem smoothly, absolutely the government will give influence with him and will arising disadvantages in the other person. All people knows that Imam Hanafi more identically with the person to wara’I, generous.

Ø  The Magnum Opus of Imam hanafi.

Jamil Ahmad in the Book “Hundred Great Moslems” explain that Imam Hanafi publish 3 books, Fiqh Akbar, Al Alim wa Al Muta’lim and Musnad Fiqh Akbar. But according Syed Ameer Ali in The Spirit of Islam, explain that the codification about Imam Hanafi’ fatwa still imperfectly. Imam Hanafi have some Student, for example:

1)      Abu Yusuf Ya’kub ibn Ibrahim Al Anshary (113 – 182 H)

2)      Muhammad ibn Hasan Al Syaibany (132 – 189 H)

3)      Zufar ibn Huzailibn Al Kufy (110 – 158 H)

Imam hanafi’s Mazhab have big infuent in Islamic Country, especially in Sunni. Majority this Mazhab spread in some country, such as Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Tunisia, Turkistan, Syria, Egypt and Lebanon.

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