Daulah Abbasid period was ” the golden age of Islam “

A. Introduction

Daulah Abbasid period was the golden age of Islam, or often referred to as”The Golden Age”. At that time Muslims have reached the peak of its glory, both in the field of economy, civilization and power. It also has developed various branches of science, coupled with the many translations of books from foreign languages into Arabic. This phenomenon is then that gave birth to great scholars-scholars who produce many new innovations in the various disciplines of knowledge. Abbas Bani Bani Umayyad inherited a large empire. This enables them to achieve more results, because its foundation has been prepared by Bani Umayyad Daulah large.

By the fall of the Umayyad Daulah has been a lot of chaos in various fields of national life; occurs mistakes and errors made by the caliphs and rulers of other countries so that there violations of Islamic teachings.

Among the errors and mistakes made are:

1. Staffing is based on clan politics, class, tribe, people and friends.
2. On going repression against the followers of Ali RA in particular and against Banu

Hashim in general.
3. Underestimate the Muslims who are not Arabs, so they are not given a chance in

government.
4. Violation of Islamic teachings and human rights in ways that openly. [1]

Banu ‘Abbas has begun to make efforts struggle for power since the time of Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (717-720 AD) ruled. Caliph was known liberal and provide tolerance to the various activities of Shia families. [2] The sons of Bani Hashim and Bani Abbas who are oppressed by the Umayyad Daulah find a way to move freely, where they founded a secret movement to overthrow the Daulah Umayyad and Abbasid Daulah building. This movement was preceded by the descendants of Bani Abbas, as Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas, Muhammad and Ibrahim. [3]

Under the leadership of their Imam Muhammad bin Ali al-Abbasy they engaged in two phases, namely phase-secret and overt phases and combat. [4] During the movement of Imam Mohammed is still alive is very confidential. Propaganda sent to all corners of the country, and got a lot of followers, especially from groups who feel oppressed, even from groups that initially supported Daulah Umayyad After Imam Muhammad died and was replaced by his son Ibrahim, at this time to join a young man Persian bloody brave and smart in this secret movement named Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani. Since the entry into the Abu Muslim Abbasid movement of this secret, then began the movement to openly, and then how to battle, and finally with a pretext to restore the descendants of Ali to the throne of the Caliphate, Abu Abbas, leader of the movement succeeded in attracting the support of the Shi’ites in fomenting resistance of the Umayyad Caliphate. Abu Abbas, then start with the murder plot until all families complete the Caliph, who was held by the caliph Marwan II ibn Muhammad. So dreadful murder until calling himself Abu Abbas, or As the pengalir blood-Saffar. [5] So in the month coinciding Zulhijjah 132 H (750 F) with the killing of Caliph Marwan II in Fusthath, Egypt, and then paying up Daulah Abbasids.

In the event one of the Umayyad Caliphate, the heir to the throne, namely Abdurrahman 20-year-old, managed to escape to mainland Spain. These figures are then managed to reconstitute the Bani Umayyad forces overseas, namely in the emirates of Cordova. There he managed to restore the glory of the Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate with the name Andalusia [6]

B. Three Abbasid dynasty in Daulah

At first Abbasid Caliphate Daulah using Kufa as a center of government, with Abu Abbas Al-Safah (750-754 AD) as the first Caliph. Then his successor Caliph al-Mansur Abu Jakfar (754-775 AD) to move the central government in Baghdad. In the city of Baghdad was later to be born of a great empire that will rule the world for more than five centuries. This empire was known by the name of the Abbasid Daulah.

In some ways Daulah Abbasid has similarities and differences with Daulah Umayyad. As happened during the Umayyad Daulah, for example, Daulah Abbasid nobles tended to live well and rolling in wealth. They liked to maintain a serf and his wife’s pet (the harem). Life is more likely to develop the worldly life rather than religious values of Islam. But there is no denying some of Khalifa has high artistic tastes and devout. No exaggeration to say that the Abbasid Daulah shift in developing the administration. So that it can be grouped into five periods Daulah Abbasid period in connection with the complexion of government. While according to the origin of the ruler during the 508 years experience three times Daulah Abbasid ruler turnover. Namely Bani Abbas, Banu Buwaihi, and Bani Seljuq, as mentioned below. That fact shows that the reign was marked by the palace intrigues and internal power struggles. [7]

a. Bani Abbas (750-932 AD)

1. Caliph Abu Abbas Al-Safah (750-754 AD)
2. Caliph al-Mansur Abu Jakfar (754-775 AD)
3. Caliph Al-Mahdi (775-785 CE)
4. Caliph Al-Hadi (785-786 AD)
5. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 AD)
6. Caliph Al-Amin (809-813 AD)
7. Caliph al-Ma’mun (813-833 AD)
8. Caliph Al-Muktasim (833-842 AD)
9. Caliph Al-Wasiq (842-847 AD)
10. Caliph Al-Mutawakkil (847-861 AD)
11. Caliph Al-Muntasir (861-862 AD)
12. Caliph Al-Mustain (862-866 AD)
13. Caliph Al-Muktazz (866-869 AD)
14. Caliph Al-Muhtadi (869-870 AD)
15. Caliph Al-Muktamid (870-892 AD)
16. Caliph Al-Muktadid (892-902 AD)
17. Caliph Al-Muktafi (902-908 AD)
18. Caliph Al-Muktadir (908-932 AD)

b. Bani Buwaihi (932-1075 AD)

19. Caliph Al-end of a (932-934 AD)
20. Caliph Ar-Radi (934-940 AD)
21. Caliph Al-Mustaqi (940-944 AD)
22. Caliph Al-Muktakfi (944-946 AD)
23. Caliph Al-Mufi (946-974 AD)
24. Khalifah At-Tai (974-991 AD)
25. Caliph al-Kadir (991-1031 AD)
26. Caliph Al-Kasim (1031-1075 AD)

c. Children of the Seljuq (1075-1258 AD)

27. Caliph Al-Muqtadi (1075-1084 AD)
28. Caliph Al-Mustazhir (1074-1118 AD)
29. Caliph Al-Mustasid (1118-1135 AD)
30. Khalifah Ar-Rashid (1135-1136 AD)
31. Caliph Al-Mustafi (1136-1160 AD)
32. Caliph Al-Mustanjid (1160-1170 AD)
33. Caliph Al-Mustadi (1170-1180 AD)
34. Caliph an-Nasir (1180-1224 AD)
35. Az-Zahir Caliph (1224-1226 AD)
36. Caliph Al-Mustansir (1226-1242 AD)
37. Caliph Al-Muktasim (1242-1258 AD)

C. Periodization of the Abbasid Daulah

a. The first period (750-847 AD)

Beginning with an iron fist

As we all know that the founder of the Abbasid Daulah This is Abu Abbas Al-Safah. At the beginning of his administration to confirm the existence of the Abbasid Caliphate Daulah, then Abu Abbas implement policies that are quite firmly, that policy is to exterminate daulah Bani Umayyad family members, and the use of a secret agent whose function is to oversee the motion and the descendants of Bani Umayyad movements, if necessary, kill him . Coordinator annihilation Bani Umayyad family were handed over to Abdullah, his uncle Abu Abbas. [8]

Cruel treatment was not only to people who are still alive Umayyad, but also to those who have died, with the way their bodies and burned out. While the tomb was not excavated, the tomb of Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and Umar bin Abdul Aziz. [9] So that eventually led to many rebellions, but the revolts that there may be broken by Abu Abbas. Abu Abbas died after he was replaced by Abu Jakfar Al-Mansur (754-775 AD)

Al-Mansur Abu Jakfar Daulah Abbasid caliph who is known most cruel. But he was most instrumental in consolidating the Abbasid dynasty to become stronger and stronger, he laid the foundations of the children of Abbasid rule and not-hesitate to take stern action to the parties that disturb the government. [10]
To support this step toward the triumph of some important policies that were taken by Al-Mansur is Kuffah to move the capital from Baghdad, a beautiful city located on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow. Meanwhile, improvements are also done in the field of public administration who are well prepared and supervision of various government activities tightened. Communication officer posts and correspondence to be enhanced watchdog functions of the governor. This was done to anticipate the possibility of separatist movements and rebellions. Nevertheless it was rebellion symptoms appear everywhere, such as some conquered areas to escape. However, the revolts that there may be broken by the Caliph al-Mansur, Abu Jakfar. Also one of the policy of Al-Mansur is the invasion and expansion of regional power, among others, into the territory of Armenia, Mesisah, Andalusia and Africa.

If the basics Daulah Abbasid rule has been laid and built by Abu Abbas and Abu Al-Safah Jakfar Al-Mansur, the golden peak of the dynasty is in the seventh caliph afterwards. Since the Caliph Al-Mahdi (775-785) to the caliph al-Wasiq (842-847 AD). [11]

Policy shift

This daulah peak popularity at the time of Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 AD) and his son Al-Ma’mun (813-833 AD). Both these authorities put more emphasis on the development of Islamic civilization and culture rather than the expansion of such areas during the Umayyad Daulah. Orientation on the development of civilization and culture is another distinguishing element between the Umayyad dynasty, the Abbasids and more emphasis on regional expansion. As a result of measures taken by this, remote provinces in the suburbs began to be separated from their clutches. [12]

There are two trends that occurred. First, a local leader who led a successful revolt as Daulah enforce full independence in the Umayyad Andalusia (Spain) and Idrisiyah (Bani Idris) in Morocco. The second mode, ie when the person who was appointed governor by the Caliph Manjadi very strong, like Daulah Aglabiah (Banu Taglib) in Tunisia and Tahiriyah in Khorasan. [13]

In the days Al-Mahdi, the economy improved. Irrigation was built to make agricultural products doubled compared to the previous. Mining and natural resources increased and so did international trade to the east and west dipergiat. Basra city became an important transit port is self-contained. [14]

The highest level of prosperity was in the days of Harun al-Rashid. The period lasted until the period of al-Ma’mun. Al-Ma’mun prominent in terms of intellectual and scientific movement by translating books from Greek.

The tendency of the Muslim people to volunteer as members of militias to follow the journey of war was no longer audible. Later the army consisted of Turkish soldiers who are professional. Military Daulah Abbasids became very strong. As a result, the army became so dominant that the next Caliph strongly influenced or become their puppets.

In response to the fact that the Caliph Al-Wasiq (842-847 AD) tried to break away from the dominance of Turkish soldiers by moving the capital to Samarra, but the effort did not succeed in reducing the dominance of the Turkish army.

One important factor which is the cause Daulah first Abbasid period was successfully reached the golden era of assimilation is happening in this Abbasid Daulah. -Participation elements of non-Arabs, especially the Persians, in the guidance of civilization and Darul Hikmah Baitul Hikmah, founded by the Caliph Harun al-Rashid and reached its peak during the Caliph al-Ma’mun.

At that time the libraries seems more like a university than a reading garden. People come to the library to read, write, and discuss. In addition, the library also serves as a center of translation. Noted events most notably against medical books, philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy and natural science. In subsequent periods of Muslim scientists have been able to develop and conduct their own innovations and inventions. Herein lies the Islamic contribution to world science and civilization.

Golden Age

Caliphate of Banu Abbas was associated with normal Caliph Harun al-Rashid, who is described as the Caliph of the most famous in the golden age of the Abbasid Caliphate. In a ruling described as very wise Caliph, who is always accompanied by his advisers, Abu Nawas, a poet in a comical, actually, is a leading gift or a philosopher of ethics. Golden age in 1001 was described in the story of the night as a country full of wonders.

Real golden age started in the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jakfar successor government of Al-Mansur is on the caliph al-Mahdi (775-785 AD) and reached its peak in the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid.

In those days the Caliph to develop various types of arts, especially literature in particular and culture in general. A variety of quality books translated from Indian and Greek civilizations. From India, for example, successfully translated books and various Kalilah and Dimnah fable story that is anonymous. Various arguments and basic mathematics are also obtained from the translation that comes from India. It also translated books from Greek philosophy, especially philosophy of ethics and logic. One result is a growing school of thought relies on the ability of highly Mu’tazilite ratio and logic in the Islamic world. While the translation of Persian literature conducted by Ibn Mukaffa, who died in the year 750 AD At that time, writers and cultural life is also famous as Abu Tammam (d. 845 AD), Al-Jahiz (died 869 AD), Abu Al-Faraj (d. 967 AD) and several other major writers. [15]

Scientific progress not only in the fields of literature and art have also evolved, to borrow a phrase of Ibn Rushd, Sciences and Science Naqli aqli. Naqli sciences such as Tafsir, Theology, Hadith, Fiqh, Usul Fiqh and others. And also developing aqli sciences like Astronomy, Mathematics, Chemistry, Language, History, Natural Science, Geography, Medicine, and others. These developments led to the great figures in the history of science, the science of language emerged among others Ibn Malik At-Thai and author who is very famous nahwu Alfiyah Ibn malik, appear in history and the great historian Ibn Khaldun’s other major figures who have a great influence for the advancement of science next.

b. Second period (847-945 AD) [16]

Caliph Al-Muktasim Policy (833-842 AD) to select the elements in the Turkish army Daulah Abbasid Caliphate especially against the background of the rivalry between Arabs and Persians at the time of al-Ma’mun and earlier. In the Al-Muktasim (833-842 AD) and Caliph Al-Wasiq thereafter (842-847 AD), they were able to control these Turkish elements. However, the Caliph al-Mutawakkil (847-861 AD) which is the beginning of this period was a Caliph of the weak. In his time the Turks may seize power immediately after the death of al-Mutawakkil. They have selected and appointed Caliph according to their will. Thus the Abbasids no longer have the strength and power, even though they are the official authorities. Efforts to release from the domination of Turkey was always a failure. In the year 892 AD, Baghdad back into the Capital. While the intellectual life continued to flourish.

Due to internal competition among the Turks, they are starting to weaken. Start the Caliph Ar-Radi hand over power to Muhammad ibn Raiq, Governor of Basra referees. In addition, the Caliph gave him the title Amir al Umara (Commander of the captains). Nevertheless, the circumstances of the Bani Abbas does not get better. Of the twelve caliphs in this period, only four people who died of natural causes, the rest, if not killed, they were overthrown by force.

Rebellion is still emerging in this period, such as rebellion Zanj in lowland southern Iraq and rebellion Karamitah based in Bahrain. But that’s not all of which hamper efforts to achieve political unity Daulah Abbasids. Important factors which cause deterioration of the Bani Abbas at this period are as follows, first, a wide area Daulah Abbasid rule which must be controlled, while the slow communication. Concurrent with that level of trust among the authorities and implementers of government is very low, the second, causing dependence on the professionalization of the army they become very high. Third, financial difficulties because of the burden of financing a very large army. After declining military power, forced the Caliphs could no longer sending tax to Baghdad.

c. Third Period (945-1055 AD)

Abbasid Daulah position under the authority of the Children Buwaihi is the main characteristic of this third period. Khalifah state worse than in the past, the more so because the Bani Buwaihi embraced Shia flow. As a result the position of Caliph no more as an employee of the governed and given a salary. Meanwhile, the Children Buwaihi has divided powers to the three brothers. Ali controlled the southern region of Persia, Hasan controlled northern region, and Ahmad Al-Ahwaz control of the area, referee and Baghdad. Thus Baghdad in this period is no longer a center of Islamic rule, as has moved to Shiraz where the power of Ali bin Buwaihi who has the power Bani Buwaihi.

In the field of science, Daulah Abbasid still continued to make progress on this period. At this time appeared a big thinkers like Al-Farabi (870-950 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Al-Biruni (973-1048 AD), Ibn Misykawaih (930-1030 AD) and study group Ikhwan As-Safa. Economics, agriculture, and commerce are also making progress. Progress was also followed by the construction of canals, mosques and hospitals. Worth noting that during the Bani Buwaihi power in Baghdad, has occurred several times the flow of social clashes Ahlu Sunnah and Shia, and the army mutiny.

d. The fourth period (1055-1199 M)

The fourth period was marked by the reign of the Seljuq Bani Abbasid Daulah. Attendance is above the Children Seljuq”invitation”to cripple the power of the Caliph in Baghdad Buwaihi Bani. Khalifah state is starting to improve, at least in the field of religious authority, has returned after a while dominated Shia people.

As in the previous period, science was also developed in this period. Nizam al-Mulk, the Prime Minister at the time of Alp Arselan and Malikshah, founded Madrasah Nizamiya (1067 AD) and Madrasah Hanafiyah in Baghdad. Branches Nizamiya Madrasah was established in almost every city in Iraq and Khurasan. This madrasa became a model for universities in the future. These madrassas have given birth to many scholars in different disciplines. For example who was born in this period is Az-Zamakhsari, writers in the field of Tafseer and proposal ad-Dien (Theology), Al-Ghazali in the field of theology and mysticism, and Omar Khayyam in the field of astrology. In the political field, the center of power is also not located in the city of Baghdad. They divided the territory into several provinces with a governor to head each province. On the momentum of power is weakening, each province became independent. Conflicts and wars that happened between them weakens their own, and sedikrit by little political power Caliph rebounded, especially for the country of Iraq. Their power ended in Iraq in the hands Khawarizmisyah in the year 1199 AD

e. Fifth Period (1199-1258 AD)

There has been massive changes in the Abbasid Caliphate Daulah in this fifth period. In this period, Abbasid Caliph no longer under a particular dynasty. They are independent and powerful, but only in Baghdad and surrounding areas. Narrowness territories Caliph showed his political weakness. At this time the Mongol and Tartar soldiers came to destroy Baghdad without a fight in the year 1258 AD

The factors that make Daulah Abbasid become weak and then destroyed can be grouped into two factors: internal and external factors. Among the internal factors are, first, there is unhealthy competition among the few nations that collected in the Abbasid Daulah, especially Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Second, the occurrence of a disagreement among the group of existing religious thought, which grew into bloodshed. Third, the emergence of small dynasties as a result of prolonged social cleavages. Fourth, the deterioration rate of the economy as a result of political clashes.

While the external factors that happened was, first, a prolonged continuation of the crusade in several waves. And the most decisive is the second factor, the invasion of Mongols and Tartars army led by Hulagu Khan, who had plundered all the power centers or science centers, the library in Baghdad.

Cruelty The Mongols [17]

Caliph Al-Muktasim, Abbasid Caliph Daulah the very end, and all his sons and all the chiefs of Baghdad killed all of them by the Mongol armies. Most of the city’s population was slaughtered like animals only. Then they rob the population and property deeds unspeakable cruelty dab ganasnya gone. All the contents of the palace and the treasury of the state they have taken everything. Palaces and beautiful buildings, madrasas and mosques damaged their impressive. Books invaluable knowledge, they throw him into the Tigris river so the black ink faded due. They burned here and there so that the fire raged throughout the city. Events cruelty is valid till 40 days. On the earth of Baghdad, no longer visible, apart from a heap of black embers are still smoldering.

Abbasid daulah Vanish

With the death of Al-Muktasim Daulah Abbasid gone from this earth, earth berkubur in Baghdad that has been under the ruins of charred buildings and palaces.

In the next five centuries, ie since the Abu Abbas Al-Safah reigned at 750 F until the day of death of Al-Muktasim in 1258 AD, there have been 37 people Daulah Abbasid caliphs throne.

Cover

Daulah Abbasid period was the golden age of Islam, In this period the sovereignty of the people of Islam had reached the peak of glory, good fortune, advancement or power. In this era has been born the various Islamic sciences and a variety of important science has been translated into Arabic. Besides contributions to the civilization of the world Muslims are also produced by the great scholar-scholars who live in the Abbasid Daulah this. But there are important lessons can be learned from the long journey Daulah Abbasid centuries of world domination that is that Muslims do not be complacent with the powers of the world, because life keterlenaan and cause us to glorify oneself away from the teachings of Allah. It also is the trigger for Muslims to take up again the triumph of Islam has ever felt at the time of the Abbasid Daulah.

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